Elucidating the mechanism of cellular uptake and removal

The current widespread exposure of humans to natural as well as man-made nanomaterials due to the deployment of nanoparticles (NPs) as food additives, as vaccine- or drug-delivery vehicles, and in diagnostic procedures encourages the evaluation of their interaction with the innate immune system.

Understanding how organisms cope with hydrophobic and chemically inert particulate matter, which is excluded from metabolic processing, is of major importance for interpreting the responses associated with the use of NPs in the biosphere.

In general, in relation to nanodevice-implemented delivery of biomaterials, a number of technical difficulties need to be overcome, such as how the materials can escape the clearance systems of the living body, how they can be guided to the target organs, how they can be internalized and utilized in the target cells, and how adverse effects associated with their use can be avoided.Rapid development of nanoscience and technology promises fundamental changes to a wide range of research fields such as energy conversion and storage, catalyze, sensing, drug delivery and imaging.Among these applications, Biomedical applications of nanomaterials have attracted the most attention in the past two decades and a number of nanomaterials have been developed for disease diagnosis and therapy [ 1–3 ].Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology of Hebei Province, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, P. China and Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology of Hebei Province, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, P. China and Unique physicochemical properties of Au nanomaterials make them potential star materials in biomedical applications.However, we still know a little about the basic problem of what really matters in fabrication of Au nanomaterials which can get into biological systems, especially cells, with high efficiency.

Elucidating the mechanism of cellular uptake and removal